The Luftwaffe over the Bristol area - Glossary and Abbreviations
Aufkl.Gr.Ob.d.L. : Aufklärungsgruppe Oberbefehlshaber der Luftwaffe. The Reconnaissance Wing of the Commander in Chief of the German Airforce.
Adler Tag: Eagle Day. The opening of the German air offensive to destroy the RAF on August 13th 1940.
All Clear: This was the British Civil Defence 'Raiders Passed' message, receipt of which would cause the sirens to sound a continuous signal for two minutes, indicating enemy aircraft had passed out of the area.
Baedeker: The name given to the reprisal raids against Britain in the summer of 1942. From Karl Baedeker's tourist guide book.
Beleuchtergruppe: A unit charged with lighting fires in a target area for the guidance of other less well equipped units.
Bf: Bayerische Flugzeugwerk GmbH. Manufacturers of Messerschmitt aircraft (Later renamed Messerschmitt AG) ie Bf 109, Bf 110 and Me 410.
Bruder: Brother. The German code name for Bristol.
Dead Reckoning : The basis of navigation in the Luftwaffe. With a knowledge of his aircraft's climb/cruise performance and given a forecast wind velocity and details of the track(s) to target, the navigator was able to calculate the headings to fly and time to reach his objective.
Düppel: Anti-radar metal foil. Named after the Düppel Estate near Berlin where it was first tested.
Do: Dornier-Werke GmbH. Manufacturers of Dornier aircraft ie Do 17, Do 217.
Epr.Gr.210 : Erprobungs Gruppe 210. Test and Development Wing. Originally intended to introduce the Me 210 into service. Later used as a fighter-bomber unit flying Bf 110's.
Erprobungs und LehrKommando: Test and Training Unit.
(F) : Fern, as in Fern Aufklärungsgruppe. Long Range Reconnaissance Wing. Abbreviated 1(F)/121 etc.
Fliegerdivision: Similar but of less importance then a Fliegerkorps, most of which were expanded into the latter as the war progressed.
Fliegerkorps: An operational command controlling an unspecified number of units. Subsidiary to a Luftflotte.
F/Lt.: Flight Lieutenant.
F/O.: Flying Officer.
F/Sgt.: Flight Sergeant.:
Geschwader: An operational unit similar to an RAF Group. Normally comprising three operational Gruppen and a Staff Flight, with a total establishment of about 100 aircraft. It also possessed a fourth training Gruppe, and later in the war a fifth Gruppe was added to some Geschwadern. Prefixed Kampf (Bomber) or Zerstörer (Long-range fighter) ie KG 55, ZG 26 etc.
Gp.Capt.: Group Captain.
Gruppe: An operational unit similar to an RAF Wing. Normally comprised three Staffeln and a Staff flight with a total establishment of 30 aircraft. Abbreviated I/KG 55 etc.
Gruppenkommandeur: Officer commanding a Gruppe.
H.E. : High Explosive bomb. Dropped in sizes from 50 to 1800 kg.
He: Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke GmbH. Manufacturers of Heinkel aircraft ie He 111 and He 177.
Höhenkampskommando der Versuchsstelle für Höhenflüege : The High Altitude Bombing Unit of the Experimental Establishment for High Altitude Flight.
I.B. : Incendiary bomb. The standard 1 kg magnesium incendiary.
Ju: Junkers Flugzeug-und Motorenwerken AG. Manufacturers of Junkers aircraft ie Ju 86R, Ju 88 and Ju 188.
Kampfgeschwader: Bomber Group. Abbreviated KG 1 etc.
Kampfgruppe : Bomber Wing. Normally a specialised independent unit. Abbreviated KGr 100 (pathfinders) KGr 606 and KGr 806 (ex-naval units).
Kettenhund: Watchdog. Airborne radar jamming equipment.
Knickebein : A precision VHF radio beam navigation and bombing system.
Kü Fl Gr : Küstenfliegergruppe. Coastal bomber-reconnaissance unit. Abbreviated Kü Fl Gr 106 etc.
Land Mine : Parachute deployed 1000 kg sea mines suitably re-fuzed for use against land targets. Later parachuteless mines fitted with a tail unit were employed.
Lehrgeschwader: Instructional/Operational Development Group. Became normal operational bombing units on the outbreak of war. Abbreviated LG 1 etc.
Luftflotte : Air Fleet. An operational command controlling a number of subsidiary Fliegerkorps.
Luftwaffe: The German Airforce
Me: see Bf.
Ob.d.L. : Oberbefehlshaber der Luftwaffe. The Commander in Chief of the German Airforce.
Oil Bomb : A large incendiary weapon containing an oil mixture and a high explosive bursting charge.
Phosphorous Bomb : A large incendiary weapon containing a liquid filling of Phosphorous, oil and rubber solution.
Pirateneinsatze: Pirate Attack. An attack carried out by a single aircraft in daylight but only with the aid of poor weather conditions to provide safety from British fighters.
PK 2: Propaganda-Kompanie 2. War Reporters Company No.2.
P/O.: Pilot Officer.
Red Alert : Red was the British Civil Defence action warning 'Raiders Approach', receipt of which would authorise the sounding of the audible sirens on a two minute fluctuating or warbling note of varying pitch giving 12 minutes advance warning of the enemy's arrival.
Ritterkreuz : The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. A military award.
S/Ldr.: Squardron Leader.
Sonderaüfklarungsstaffel Ob.d.L: The Special Reconnaissance Squadron of the Commander in Chief of the German Airforce.
SS Flight : RAF's Special Service Flight. Formed to counter high altitude raiders.
Stab Schwarm : Group HQ Staff Flight. Normally three aircraft. Abbreviated Stab/KG 55 etc.
Staffel: The smallest Luftwaffe operational unit similar to an RAF Squadron normally comprising 9 aircraft. 1,2 and 3 Staffeln were in I Gruppe; 4,5 and 6 in II Gruppe; 7,8, and 9 in III Gruppe; 10,11 and 12 in IV Gruppe; 13,14 and 15 in V Gruppe. Abbreviated 7/KG 100 etc.
Staffelkäpitan: Officer commanding a Staffel.
Steinbock: Ibex. The code name given to the German reprisal raids against Britain in early 1944.
Störangriffe: Nuisance or harassing attack.
Unternehmen Seelöwe : Operation Sealion, the planned German invasion of Britain during the summer of 1940.
(W) : Wachtel, after Oberst Max Wachtel commander of Flak Regiment 155.
X-Verfahren: X-System . A VHF multi-beam precision bombing system.
Y-Verfahren: Y-System . A VHF single beam/range-measuring precision bombing system.
W/Cdr.: Wing Commander.
Zerstörergeschwader : (lit. Destroyer Wing). Long-range fighter Wing. Abbreviated ZG 26 etc.